We are living in the world of automation where most of the systems are getting automated, such as industrial automation, homes and other business sectors. Home automation systems are advancement to the mechanisation processes wherein human efforts are needed with the machinery equipments to operate various loads in homes. It involves automatic controlling of home appliances using different technologies and controllers over desktops, laptops smart phones or tablets.
Home automation system makes the operations of various home appliances more convenient and saves energy. With the energy saving concept, home automation makes life very simple nowadays. It involves automatic controlling of all electrical or electronic devices in homes or even remotely through wireless communication. Centralized control of lighting equipments, air conditioning and heating, audio/video systems, security systems, kitchen appliances and all other equipments used in home systems is possible with this system.
This system is mainly implemented by sensors, controlling devices and actuators. The sensors detects light, motion, temperature and other sensing elements, and then send that data to the main controlling devices. These sensors can be thermocouples or thermistors, photo detectors, level sensors, pressure sensors, current transformers, IR sensors, etc., which need an additional signal conditioning equipment to communicate with the main controller.
Controllers may be personal computers/laptops, touch pads, smart phones, etc., attached to the controlling devices like programmable-logic controllers that receive the information from the sensors, and based on the program, control the actuators. This program can be modified based on the load operations. The programmable controller allows to connect various sensors and actuators through various input and output modules whether they are analog or digital.
Actuators are the final controlling devices like limit switches, relays, motors and other controlling mechanisms which finally control the home equipments. Communication plays an important role in this home automation system for the remote access of these operations. This smart home system also provides continuous monitoring through video surveillance with cameras, scheduling, and energy saving operations. This is the best solution even for the elderly and the disabled persons to operate equipments.
Implementation of the home automation depends on the type of controls like wired or wireless. There are mainly three types of home automation systems:
1. Power line Based Home Automation
2. Wired or BUS Cable Home Automation
3. Wireless Home Automation